Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external mechanical force causes brain dysfunction.
Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. An object penetrating the skull, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury.
Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain that can result in long-term complications or death.
The non-surgical treatment and rehabilitation of patients suffering from brain injury and neurological problems is a primary treatment area for physical medicine doctors (Physiatrist). Brain injury and illness encompass a wide spectrum of dysfunction, from sports-related concussion and traumatic brain injury caused by an automobile accident, to stroke and diseases like multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy.

Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussions

Treatment is individualized. Since no two patients have the same set of impairments, the physiatrist has to address each patient’s specific issues, which can include cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences of the injury. Studies and experience show that early and ongoing involvement by a physiatrist decreases short-term complications and optimizes long-term functional outcome and quality of life.


A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury—or TBI—caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, stretching and damaging the brain cells and creating chemical changes in the brain ( The Stroke & Diabetes Center has developed a specialized Concussion Clinic to meet the demand and needs of our community, as awareness and the prevalence of sport, fall, or auto induced concussions continues to rise in Trinidad & Tobago.